Entering through the respiratory tract with this definition of asbestosis, there is also a greater risk of dust accumulation in the lungs. The size of the dust has too much effect on the occurrence of diseases of the respiratory tract. Dust together with a size of 5-10 microns will be held by the upper respiratory tract, 3-5 microns will be held by the middle respiratory tract, 1-3 microns will reach the surface of the alveoli, 0.5-1 microns will land on the surface of the alveoli / mucous membranes to cause pulmonary fibrosis, while 0.1-0.5 microns float on the surface of the alveoli. Asbestosis is caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers (50 microns in length or more and 0.5 microns in diameter or less), by asbestos fibers, where asbestos fibers are difficult to destroy, let alone by macrophages.
When the definition of asbestosis, macrophages try to digest asbestos fibers, they often fail because the fibers are too strong and the chain bonds are too strong to break down. Risk factors for asbestosis are:
- People working in the processing, mining, weaving, asbestos spinning, and textile repairing industries along with asbestos-containing products.
- Exposure to the family of walking asbestos workers comes from particles carried to the residence in the clothes of the workers
- Tobacco smokers are more likely to suffer from asbestos-related diseases than non-smokers. The life expectancy of smokers is shorter than non-smokers. Asbestos workers who quit smoking, within 5-10 years. were able to reduce the risk of lung cancer death by approximately one-half to one-third of their peers who consistently smoked.
Inhaled asbestos fibers will be deposited in the bronchial walls (from the main bronchial branches to the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli). Asbestos fibers cause injury to epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages that attempt to phagocyte fibers. Some of the fibers will enter the interstitial tissue through penetration carried by macrophages or epithelium. Damaged macrophages will release reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage the tissue and more than one cytokine, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin- and arachidonic acid metabolites which will initiate alveoli inflammation (alveolitis). Disrupted epithelial cells also secrete cytokines. Small-scale disruption of asbestos will not cause problems once the inflammation has occurred. However, if the fibers were inhaled at higher levels, the alveolitis would occur more intensely, triggering a more violent tissue reaction. This tissue reaction triggers progressive fibrosis, which is the release of profibrotic cytokines such as fibronectin, fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor which will trigger collagen synthesis.